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Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. For example, the medicinal compound hydroxyurea (old British Approved Name) is now hydroxycarbamide. Other names include carbamide resin, isourea, carbonyl diamide, and carbonyldiamine. Sometimes used as a browning agent in factory-produced pretzels. Urea is used in topical dermatological products to promote rehydration of the skin. If covered by an occlusive dressing, 40% urea preparations may also be used for nonsurgical debridement of nails.



Carbohydrates (from ‘hydrates of carbon’) or saccharides (Greek meaning “sugar”) are simple organic compounds that are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon atom that is not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules, which also include proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). Additionally, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.


A chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. It is a group 14, nonmetallic, tetravalent element, that presents several allotropic forms of which the best known ones are graphite (the thermodynamically stable form under normal conditions), diamond, and amorphous carbon.[7] There are three naturally occurring isotopes: 12C and 13C are stable, and 14C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5700 years.[8] Carbon is one of the few elements known to man since antiquity.[9][10] The name “carbon” comes from Latin language carbo, coal, and in some Romance languages, the word carbon can refer both to the element and to coal.It is the 4th most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It is ubiquitous in all known lifeforms, and in the human body it is the second most abundant element by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.[11] This abundance, together with the unique diversity of organic compounds and their unusual polymer-forming ability at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth, make this element the chemical basis of all known life.

The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, diamond is highly transparent, while graphite is opaque and black. Diamond is among the hardest materials known, while graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper. Diamond has a very low electric conductivity, while graphite is a very good conductor. Also, diamond has the highest thermal conductivity of all known materials. All the allotropic forms are solids under normal conditions.

of carbon in All forms of carbon are highly stable, requiring high temperature to react even with oxygen. The most common oxidation stateinorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and other transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil and methane clathrates. Carbon forms more compounds than any other element, with almost ten million pure organic compounds described to date, which in turn are a tiny fraction of such compounds that are theoretically possible under standard conditions.

Source: Wikipedia


Carrageenans or carrageenins are a family of linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds. The name is derived from a type of seaweed that is abundant along the Irish coastline. Gelatinous extracts of the Chondrus crispus seaweed have been used as food additives for hundreds of years, though analysis of carrageenan safety as an additive continues.

Cascara Sagrada Bark

Cascara sagrada is the dried, aged bark of a small tree in the buckthorn family native to the Pacific Northwest. The bark is harvested mostly from wild trees in Oregon, Washington, and southern British Columbia. The bark is aged for a year so that the active principles become milder, as freshly dried bark produces too strong a laxative for safe use; it also contains a compound that induces vomiting.

The name cascara sagrada is Spanish for “sacred bark”. Long used as a laxative by Native American groups of the northwest Pacific coast, cascara sagrada bark was not introduced into formal medical practice in the United States until 1877. In 1890, it replaced the berries of the European buckthorn (R. catharticus) as an official laxative. It is still used in over-the-counter laxatives available in every pharmacy in the United States.

Cassia Nomame Bark Powder

Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym C. cassia) is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. Like its close relative, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, also known as “true cinnamon” or “Ceylon cinnamon”), it is used primarily for its aromatic bark, which is used as a spice. The Cassia tree grows to 10-15 m tall, with greyish bark, and hard elongated leaves 10-15 cm long, that have a decidedly reddish colour when young. Most of the spice sold as cinnamon in the United States and Canada (where true cinnamon is still generally unknown) is actually cassia. In some cases, cassia is labeled “Indonesian cinnamon” to distinguish it from the more expensive true cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), which is the preferred form of the spice used in Mexico and Europe. A 2003 study published in the DiabetesCare journal followed Type 2 diabetics ingesting 1, 3 or 6 grams of cassia daily. Those taking 6 grams shows changes after 20 days, and those taking lesser doses showed changes after 40 days. Regardless of the amount of cassia taken, they reduced their mean fasting serum glucose levels 18-29%, their triglyceride levels 23-30%, their LDL cholesterol 7-27%, and their total cholesterol 12-26%, over others taking placebos. The effects, which may even be produced by brewing a tea from cassia bark, may also be beneficial for non-diabetics to prevent and control elevated glucose and blood lipid levels. Cassia’s effects on enhancing insulin sensitivity appear to be mediated by polyphenols. Despite these findings, cassia should not be used in place of anti-diabetic drugs, unless blood glucose levels are closely monitored and its use is combined with a strictly controlled diet and exercise program. There is also much anecdotal evidence that consumption of cassia has a strong effect in lowering blood pressure, making it potentially useful to those suffering from hypertension. The USDA has three ongoing studies that are monitoring the blood pressure effect. There is concern that there is as yet no knowledge about the potential for toxic buildup of the fat-soluble components in cassia, as anything fat-soluble could potentially be subject to toxic buildup. However, people have been using the spice as a seasoning safely for thousands of years. There are no concluded long term clinical studies on the use of cassia for health reasons. Source:


Catechin, another naturally occurring flavonoid, is similar in effect to silymarin. Catechin is a powerful anti-oxidant that helps prevent free radical oxidative damage to cells. It also helps in the treatment and prevention of alcohol and chemical-induced liver disease or damage. Catechin is also valuable for its ability to neutralize intestinal toxins and assist in the stabilization of cell membranes.


Cayenne pepper is a hot red pepper used to flavor dishes; its name comes from the city of Cayenne in French Guiana. Its powdered form comes from the fruit of several cultivated varieties of the Capsicum baccatum and Capsicum frutescens very closely related to bell peppers, jalapenos, paprika, and others. All are related species of the nightshade family (Solanaceae). The fruits are generally dried and ground, or pulped and baked into cakes, which are then ground and sifted to make the powder. Cayenne is used in cooking spicy hot dishes, as a powder or in its whole form (such as in Szechuan cuisine). It is generally rated at 40,000 to 90,000 Scoville Units. It is also used as an herbal supplement, and was mentioned by Nicholas Culpeper in his Complete Herbal. Additionally, cayenne has many beneficial medicinal qualities. Cayenne is a traditional treatment, as well as modern, most notably for the pulmonary and digestive systems. The potent, hot fruit of cayenne has been used as medicine for centuries. It was considered helpful for various conditions: Gastrointestinal tract: including stomachaches, cramping pains, and gas. Diseases of the Circulatory System. It is still traditionally used in herbal medicine as a circulatory tonic (a substance believed to improve circulation). Rheumatic and arthritic pains: Rubbed on the skin it causes, what is termed as, a counterirritant effect. A counterirritant is something which causes irritation to the area that it is applied. This makes it distract the nerves from the original irritation (such as joint pain in the case of arthritis). Active Components: Cayenne contains a resin like pungent substance known as capsaicin. This chemical relieves pain and itching by affecting sensory nerves. Capsaicin temporarily causes the nerves to release various neurotransmitters from these nerves, leading to their depletion. Without the neurotransmitters, pain signals can no longer be sent. The effect is temporary. Capsaicin and other constituents in cayenne have been shown to have several other actions, including reducing platelet stickiness and acting as antioxidants. Source:


Cellulose may be used in foods as a hydrocolloid. As a vegetable gum, it serves a major role as a stabilizer. Cellulose is also frequently used as a fat replacer or substitute. In foods, the cellulose ingredients are insoluble fibrous particles that are capable of holding water and suspending the dispersed particulates. It can replace fat because it gives an appropriate mouth feel and lends a glossy opaque appearance when used. Cellulose is an excellent source of insoluble fiber. Unlike soluble fiber, insoluble fiber does not feed bacteria well and is not readily fermented into short chain fatty acids.

Cellulose Gum

Cellulose may be used in foods as a hydrocolloid. As a vegetable gum, it serves a major role as a stabilizer. Cellulose is also frequently used as a fat replacer or substitute. In foods, the cellulose ingredients are insoluble fibrous particles that are capable of holding water and suspending the dispersed particulates. It can replace fat because it gives an appropriate mouth feel and lends a glossy opaque appearance when used. Cellulose is an excellent source of insoluble fiber. Unlike soluble fiber, insoluble fiber does not feed bacteria well and is not readily fermented into short chain fatty acids.


Cerium was discovered in 1803 by both Klaproth and by Berzelius and Hisinger. However, Hillebrand and Hisisnger produced the metal much later in 1875. It is the most abundant of the rare earth metals and is found in a number of minerals, which include allanite (also know as orthite), monazite, bastnasite, cerite and samarskite. Monazite and bastnasite are presently the two most important sources of cerium.


Irradiation of food is the use of ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes of cobalt or cesium or from accelerators that produce controlled amounts of beta rays or x-rays on food. The food does not become radioactive. Research over the past 40 years has shown that irradiation can be used: to destroy insects and parasites in grains, dried beans, dried fruits and vegetables, and meat and seafood; to inhibit sprouting in crops such as potatoes and onions; to delay ripening of fresh fruits and vegetables; and to decrease the numbers of microorganisms in foods. Hence, the incidence of foodborne illness and disease can be decreased and the shelf life of food can be extended.


Cetylmyristoleate (CMO) is the common name for cis-9-cetyl myristoleate, an antiinflammatory compound discovered in 1972 by Harry W Diehl, PhD, a researcher at the National Institutes of Health. It is a naturallyoccurring compound in a number of animals, including cows, whales, beavers, and mice.

Diehl’s research suggests that CMO lubricates joints and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. In one study of people with various types of arthritis who did not respond to treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Diehl gave some 540 mg of CMO each day for 30 days, while the remainder received a placebo. Both group were told to apply topical CMO or placebo when needed.

Results showed that 63.5% of those receiving CMO improved significantly, compared with just 14.5% of the placebo group. US Patents were subsequently granted to Diehl for the use of CMO in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.


Chasterberry is thought to inhibit the excessive production of prolactin, a hormone that regulates breast-milk production. Chasterberry is believed to help restore the hormonal balance as it helps relieve PMS- related complaints such as bloating and depression. Chasterberry is thought to promote fertility and ease the menopausal hot flushes. It may be supplemented in the form of a capsule or tablet.

Chlorogenic acid

Chlorogenic Acid is a naturally occurring, water soluble, phenolic acid that is a potent anti-oxidant, carcinogenic inhibitor and protector against lipid peroxidation and free radical mediated cell injury.

Chondroitin sulfate

Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. Understanding the functions of such diversity in chondroitin sulfate and related glycosaminoglycans is a major goal of glycobiology. Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis.


An essential mineral that is found in many unrefined foods including Brewer’s yeast, calf liver, wheat germ, nuts and cheese. Chromium is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and may help regulate blood glucose availability. Source:

Citric Acid

A colorless, crystalline organic compound belonging to the family of carboxylic acids, present in practically all plants and in many animal tissues and fluids. It is one of a series of compounds involved in the physiological oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and water. First isolated from lemon juice by a Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in 1784, citric acid is manufactured by fermentation of cane sugar or molasses in the presence of a fungus, Aspergillus niger. It is used in confections and soft drinks (as a flavoring agent), in metal-cleaning compositions, and in improving the stability of foods and other organic substances (by suppressing the deleterious action of dissolved metal salts).” Citrus fruits are notable for their fragrance, and most are juice-laden. They contain a high proportion of citric acid giving them their characteristic astringent odour and flavour. They are also good sources of vitamin C. In botanical terms, “The fruit of all Citrus trees, in which the true fruit is the peel, [is] made up of an outer layer, brightly colored and rich in glands, a spongey whitish mesocarp, and a membraneous endocarp surrounding the segments. The succulent parts we eat is only a secondary tissue developed as a filler” List of citrus fruits: Amanatsu Bergamot orange Bitter orange (Seville Orange) Calamondin (Calamansi) Citron Clementine Golden Lime – hybrid between the genus Citrus and the genus Fortunella Daidai Dancy Grapefruit Ichang Lemon Iyokan Kaffir lime Key lime Kumquat – in the related genus Fortunella, not Citrus; forms hybrids with Citrus Lemon Lime Limequat Mandarin Lime Mandarin Orange Meyer Lemon Mikan Minneola Natsumikan Orange Orangelo (Chironja) Orangequat Persian lime (Tahiti lime) Pomelo (Pummelo, Shaddock) Ponkan Rangpur (Lemanderin) Rough Lemon Satsuma Shekwasha (Taiwan Tangerine) Sudachi Sweetie Tachibana Orange Tangelo Tangerine Tangor Ugli Yuzu Some brands of Citric Acid may be made from wheat, however this is very rare.


Cobalt is a hard, lustrous, silver-grey metal, a chemical element with symbol Co. It is found in various ores, and is used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant, and high-strength alloys. Its compounds are used in the production of inks, paints, and varnishes.

Colloidal Silver

Colloidal silver refers to microscopic particles of silver that are held in a liquid suspension. A colloid is technically defined as particles which remain suspended without forming an ionic, or dissolved solution. The broader commercial definition of colloidal silver includes products that contain various concentrations of ionic silver, silver colloids, ionic silver compounds or silver proteins in purified water. Colloidal silver with concentrations of 30 parts per million (ppm) or less are typically manufactured using an electrolyte process, whereas colloidal silver with higher concentrations of 50 ppm or more are usually either silver compounds such as silver chloride and silver iodide or are solutions that have been bound with a protein to disperse the particles.


The body contains about 100mg of this trace mineral, which is stored in the liver. It serves as a constituent of enzymes, which function in a number of capacities, such as in the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, manufacturing of collagen and the healing of wounds. Copper is also involved in respiration and the release of energy. Source:


Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, Q10, or Q) is a benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group, and 10 refers to the isoprenyl chemical subunits.

This vitamin-like substance is, by nature, present in most human cells except red blood cells and eye lens cells (no mitochondria) and are responsible for the production of the body’s own energy. In each human cell, food energy is converted into energy in the mitochondria with the aid of CoQ10. Ninety-five percent of all the human body’s energy requirements (ATP) is converted with the aid of CoQ10. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements – such as the heart, the lungs, and the liver – have the highest CoQ10 concentrations


Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the Indian curry spice turmeric, the other two curcuminoids being demethoxycurcumin and Bis-demethoxycurcumin.The curcuminoids are polyphenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin can exist in at least two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The enol form is more energetically stable in the solid phase and in solution. It is also hepatoprotective.

Curcumin can be used for boron quantification in the so-called curcumin method. It reacts with boric acid forming a red colored compound, known as rosocyanine. Since curcumin is brightly colored, it may be used as a food coloring. As a food additive, its E number is E100.

A 2008 study at Michigan State University showed that low concentrations of curcumin interfere with Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) replication. The same study showed that curcumin inhibited the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to viral DNA, thus inhibiting the transcription of the viral DNA. This effect was shown to be independent of effect on histone acetyltransferase activities of p300/CBP. A previous (1999) study performed at University of Cincinnati indicated that curcumin is significantly associated with protection from infection by HSV-2 in animal models of intravaginal infections.


Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is a water soluble vitamin, although small amounts are stored in the liver. It is a member of the B group of vitamins and is vital for the formation of red blood cells, for nerve cells, and the recycling of certain important enzymes. NOTE: Drinking alcohol may increase your requirement for B12. EU Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) is 1 mcg. Upper Safe Level (USL) for long term use is 3000 mcg.


Cynarin assists in the detoxification of the liver and gall bladder. It also supports the function of these two important organs while and assists in their regeneration following damage. Cynarin stimulates the clearance of bile from the liver, preventing congestion in the liver and thus diminishing the chances of liver damage.


Cysteine (abbreviated as Cys or C) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH. It is not an essential amino acid, which means that humans can synthesize it. Its codons are UGU and UGC. With a thiol side chain, cysteine is classified as a hydrophilic amino acid. Because of the high reactivity of this thiol, cysteine is an important structural and functional component of many proteins and enzymes. Cysteine is named after cystine, its oxidized dimer.

Deionized Water

Deionized water, also known as demineralized water (DI water, DIW or de-ionized water; can also be spelled deionised water, see Spelling differences), is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. Deionization is a physical process which uses specially-manufactured ion exchange resins which bind to and filter out the mineral salts from water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup. However, deionization does not significantly remove uncharged organic molecules, viruses or bacteria, except by incidental trapping in the resin. Specially made strong base anion resins can remove Gram-negative bacteria. Deionization can be done continuously and inexpensively using electrodeionization.

Deionization does not remove the hydroxide or hydronium ions from water. These are the products of the self-ionization of water to equilibrium, so removing them would lead to the removal of the water itself.

Denatured Alcohol

Denatured alcohol is ethanol which has been rendered toxic or otherwise undrinkable, and in some cases dyed. It is used for purposes such as fuel for spirit burners and camping stoves, and as a solvent. Traditionally, the main additive was 10% methanol, which gave rise to methylated spirits. There are diverse industrial uses for ethanol, and therefore literally hundreds of recipes for denaturing ethanol. Typical additives are methanol, isopropanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, denatonium, and even (uncommonly) aviation gasoline.
In the phrase denatured alcohol, denatured means “a specific property of ethanol, its usefulness as a beverage, is removed”. The ethanol molecule is not denatured in the sense that its chemical structure is altered.

There is no duty on denatured alcohol in most countries, making it considerably cheaper than pure ethanol. Consequently, its composition is tightly defined by government regulations which vary between countries. Different additives are used to make it both unpalatable and poisonous in such a way that is hard to rectify through distillation or other simple processes. Methanol is commonly used for this in part because it has a boiling point close to that of ethanol, and separating it by distillation is difficult, but not impossible as methanol and ethanol form a zeotropic mixture (the opposite of an azeotropic mixture). In many countries, it is also required to be dyed blue or purple with an aniline dye.

The tax-exempt status for denatured alcohol dates from the mid-19th century. For instance the United Kingdom introduced legislation in 1855 to permit ethanol containing 10% wood-naphtha to be exempt.


DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) This Omega-3 fatty acid is a major structural component of brain, nerve and retinal membranes. DHA is transformed to newborn babies through breast milk. This fatty acid plays a unique role in fetus development and is extremely important during the first few months of life. Source:


Dehydroepiandrosterone is the most potent testosterone. It is the one form of testosterone that has been shown in scientific studies to be in clear correlation to sexual desire and performance. Treatment with the over-the-counter hormonal therapy DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) may be effective in treating midlife-onset minor and major depression, according to a study in the February issue of the journal Archives of General Psychiatry. DHEA, an androgen hormone produced naturally by the adrenal gland, is also classified as a neurosteroid due to its effects on the brain. DHEA is also sold in supplement form in stores throughout the United States. Researchers at the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health studied 23 men and 23 women aged 45 to 65 with moderately severe midlife-onset minor or major depression. They initially received either six week of DHEA therapy or six weeks of placebo. The treatment groups were then reversed. The study participants were evaluated at three and six weeks during the treatment phases. A 50 percent reduction on a depression rating scale was noted in 23 volunteers following DHEA treatment and in 13 volunteers after placebo.


Disodium EDTA

Abbreviation for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, an ADDITIVE used in some processed foods to eliminate the possibility of rancidity caused by the transfer of trace metals during the manufacturing process. EDTA has a wide variety of non-culinary uses, including the treatment of lead poisoning.

Distilled Water

Distilled water is water that has virtually all of its impurities removed through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container, leaving most if not all solid contaminants behind.


Essential amino acid; the body uses it to produce some hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyroxine, cholecystokinin) and melanin, (a brown skin pigment); cholecystokinin causes suppression of the appetite (this may be useful to sports people who need to reduce body fat or maintain a certain weight); pain relieving effects of phenylalanine may be of use to athletic people who experience pain due to muscle, ligament, joint and tendon injury, inflammation and spasms which commonly result from intense exercise

Dong Quai Powder

Dong Quai A favorite Chinese herb for women, is derived from the root of Chinese angelica. It is used primarily in formulas for its anti-spasmodic and related menstrual functions. Don Quai should not be taken during pregnancy. Source:


Dysprosium is a rare earth element that has a metallic, bright silver luster, relatively stable in air at room temperature, but dissolving readily in dilute or concentrated mineral acids with the emission of hydrogen. It is soft enough to be cut with bolt-cutters (but not with a knife), and can be machined without sparking if overheating is avoided. Dysprosium’s characteristics can be greatly affected even by small amounts of impurities.


Echinacea, the purple coneflower, is the best known and researched herb for stimulating the immune system. Thousands of Europeans and Americans use echinacea preparations against colds and flu, minor infections, and a host of other major and minor ailments. This native American herb has an impressive record of laboratory and clinical research. Thousands of doctors currently use echinacea for treating infectious diseases. Echinacea has a rich tradition of use by North American Plains Indians who used it medicinally more than any other plant. It was prominent in modern American medicine in the early 20th Century, and was discovered by Europeans, who have used it extensively since the 1930s. Today millions of Europeans use echinacea as their primary therapy for colds, flus, infections, and for general immune-boosting effects.



Elecampane, also called Horse-heal (Inula helenium) or Marchalan (in Welsh), is a perennial composite plant common in many parts of Great Britain, and ranges throughout central and Southern Europe, and in Asia as far eastwards as the Himalayas.

It is a rather rigid herb, the stem of which attains a height of from 3 to 5 feet; the leaves are large and toothed, the lower ones stalked, the rest embracing the stem; the flowers are yellow, 2 inches broad, and have many rays, each three-notched at the extremity. The root is thick, branching and mucilaginous, and has a warm, bitter taste and a camphoraceous odor.

For medicinal purposes it should be procured from plants not more than two or three years old. Besides inulin, C12H20O10, a body isomeric with starch, the root contains helenin, C6H8O, a stearoptene, which may be prepared in white acicular crystals, insoluble in water, but freely soluble in alcohol. When freed from the accompanying inula-camphor by repeated crystallization from alcohol, helenin melts at 110 0C. By the ancients the root was employed both as a medicine and as a condiment, and in England it was formerly in great repute as an aromatic tonic and stimulant of the secretory organs. As a drug, however, the root is now seldom resorted to except in veterinary practice, though it is undoubtedly possessed of antiseptic properties.


EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) EPA and DHA are Omega-3 fatty acids. These fatty acids have been linked to cardiovascular health and lower incidence of several types of cancer. EPA is found in mackerel, salmon, herring, sardines and albacore tuna. Source:


Erbium is a chemical element with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. A rare, silvery, white metallic lanthanide; Erbium is a solid in its normal state. It is a rare earth element, erbium is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden.

A trivalent element, pure erbium metal is malleable (or easily shaped), soft yet stable in air, and does not oxidize as quickly as some other rare-earth metals. Its salts are rose-colored, and the element has characteristic sharp absorption spectra bands in visible light, ultraviolet, and near infrared. Otherwise it looks much like the other rare earths. Its sesquioxide is called erbia. Erbium’s properties are to a degree dictated by the kind and amount of impurities present. Erbium does not play any known biological role, but is thought by some to be able to stimulate metabolism[citation needed]. Erbium-doped glasses or crystals can be used as optical amplification media, where erbium ions are optically pumped at around 980nm or 1480nm and then radiate light at 1550nm. This process can be used to create lasers and optical amplifiers. The 1550nm wavelength is especially important for optical communications because standard single mode optical fibers have minimal loss at this particular wavelength. A large variety of medical applications can be found (i.e. dermatology, dentistry) by utilizing the 2940nm emission (see Er:YAG_laser) which is highly absorped in water (about 12000 1/cm).


Erythritol ((2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol) is a natural sugar alcohol (a type of sugar substitute) which has been approved for use in the United States and throughout much of the world. It occurs naturally in fruits and fermented foods. At industrial level, it is produced from glucose by fermentation with a yeast, Moniliella pollinis. It is 60–70% as sweet as table sugar yet it is almost non-caloric, does not affect blood sugar, does not cause tooth decay, and is absorbed by the body, therefore unlikely to cause gastric side effects unlike other sugar alcohols. Under U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling requirements, it has a caloric value of 0.2 calories per gram (95% less than sugar and other carbohydrates), though nutritional labelling varies from country to country—some countries like Japan label it as zero-calorie, while European Union regulations currently label it and all other sugar alcohols at 2.4 kcal/g.